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Typhoid Vaccination Typhoid Vaccination
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Typhoid Vaccination

Typhoid Vaccination

Typhoid fever is still a health threat in many developing countries but rare in developed countries, this is because adequate medical care, improved sanitation, and safe drinking water are not available in most of these countries.

Due to these reasons, it is highly advisable to get a vaccination when you consider travelling to any of these countries, or you want to live there.

Egypt, Pakistan, and India are high-risks areas for contracting typhoid, other high-risk areas of typhoid fever are Africa, South America, and South and Southeast Asia.

Annually, 21 million people are affected by typhoid worldwide, and every year, about 200,000 people die from this disease.

Facts about Typhoid Fever?

A very severe illness in recent times is known as typhoid fever, which is caused by a bacterium called “Salmonella enterica; this bacterium enters the body through contaminated food and water.

This bacteria affects your liver and causes severe inflammation of the liver; this can make you very sick for a period of 2 to 3 weeks. If this sickness is not properly treated, it can be fatal and lead to hospitalisation and even death.

Causes of Typhoid Fever

  • Fecal-Oral Transmission Route

Typhoid fever is contracted when you drink water or eat food that has been contaminated with the causal bacteria. People who are ill or carriers of these bacteria can contaminate water supply through their stools.

There is a high concentration of these bacteria in the stools of people who have had typhoid fever. The bacteria can survive for weeks in dried sewage or water, and this is common in underdeveloped countries due to poor sanitation.

Salmonella can also be passed in the urine of infected people when it contaminates a source of water supply.

typhoid vaccination
Diagnosis – Typhoid Fever. Medical Report with Composition of Medicaments
  • Typhoid Carriers

Some recover from typhoid fever after treatment with antibiotics, and they continue harbouring the bacteria in their gallbladders or intestinal tracts for years. These people are called chronic carriers.

According to statistics, 1 in 20 people who have survived typhoid without being treated with antibiotics become carriers of this disease.

They shed the bacteria through their faeces and urine, and they can infect other people, carriers do not have the signs and symptoms of typhoid fever.

When a carrier who hasn’t washed carefully after using the toilet prepares food, and you eat it, you can become infected with typhoid. You can also contract typhoid fever when you eat fruits and vegetables washed in contaminated water.

Other Ways of Contracting Typhoid Fever

You can become infected with typhoid fever when you:

  • Don’t wash your hands after using the toilet and you eat or touch your mouth
  • Use a toilet contaminated with the bacteria
  • Eat seafood from a source of water that has been contaminated by infected stool or urine
  • Eat raw vegetables that were fertilised with human waste
  • Drink contaminated milk and their products
  • Have anal or oral sex with a carrier of typhoid

What Happens When the Bacteria Enters your Body?

When you take in food or water contaminated with Salmonella, the bacterium enters your small intestine and the bloodstream; it stays there temporarily until it is carried by the white blood cells into the liver, bone marrow, and spleen.

In these places, it multiplies and re-enters your bloodstream; it is at this point you start seeing the signs and symptoms of typhoid fever. Then they invade the lymphatic tissue of the bowel, the gallbladder, and the biliary system and multiply in high numbers there.

These bacteria then move into your intestinal tract and stay there. This is why typhoid fever is diagnosed by testing your stool sample for the presence of these bacteria. Urine and blood samples are also tested for the presence of salmonella species.

Symptoms of Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever has an incubation period of 1 to 2 weeks; this is the time it takes for the sickness to develop. Common signs and symptoms of typhoid fever are:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Poor appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Headaches
  • High body temperature, as high as 1040F
  • Body aches and pains
  • Abdominal pain
  • Chest congestion
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Confusion
  • Rashes characterised by small pink spots
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Swollen abdomen
  • Muscle aches
  • Weight loss
  • Dry cough
  • Sweating

When left untreated, it can become delirious, and life-threatening complications can develop at this time. A condition known as “typhoid state” can develop. This is a state in which you lie motionless and exhausted, and your eyes will be half-closed.

Treatment of Typhoid Fever

Antibiotics are used to treat typhoid fever. They kill the causal organism and reduce the mortality rate. Appropriate antibiotic therapy improves the symptoms of typhoid in 1 to 2 days, and recovery is seen within 7 to 10 days.

There are several antibiotics used in treating typhoid, your doctor will help choose the antibiotic that can handle your case, and this choice depends on the geographical area where the disease was contracted from.

Can Typhoid Re-Occur?

In 10% of people, the signs and symptoms may return after about two weeks of treatment. This relapse is common in people treated with antibiotics.

When relapses occur, patients are treated with antibiotics again. Those who are chronically ill are treated with prolonged antibiotics, permanent cure for typhoid fever includes the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is the site of chronic infection.

How to Minimise the Risks of Typhoid Fever

  • Be vaccinated
  • Wash your hands properly after using the toilet and also wash your hands frequently
  • Don’t drink untreated water, boil your water before drinking or drink bottled water. Also, avoid ice because you don’t know the water used in making it.
  • Use clean glasses, cups, and plates
  • When you are in high-risk areas, use bottled water to brush your teeth
  • Don’t swallow the water in the bath or shower
  • Don’t eat raw fruits and vegetables because they might have been washed in contaminated water. When you are in prone areas, avoid raw foods completely, only stick to hot foods.
  • Don’t patronise food from street vendors, eat in a reputable restaurant
  • Don’t eat stored food or food served at room temperature.

Complications of Typhoid Fever

Health complications are caused when typhoid is not treated with the appropriate antibiotics or when the treatment is delayed. These complications usually develop during the third week of infection, and 1 out of 10 people experience these complications.

There are 2 common complications in cases of untreated typhoid fever; they are:

  • Internal Bleeding: This takes place in your digestive system, it is not life-threatening, but it can cause a great deal of discomfort. Symptoms of internal bleeding are:
    1. A very dark colour or tar-like stool
    2. Vomiting blood
    3. Irregular heartbeat
    4. Pale skin
    5. Shortness of breath or breathlessness
    6. Constant tiredness

A blood transfusion might be needed to replace the lost blood, and in some cases, surgery is carried out to repair the bleeding site.

  • Perforation: This is a serious complication, and it can spread the infection to other tissues that are nearby. It can lead to peritonitis; in this condition, the bacteria can move into your stomach and infect your peritoneum (the lining of your abdomen).

This condition is a medical emergency because your peritoneum is germ-free and does not have an inbuilt defence mechanism. The infection might spread to your bloodstream and other vital organs.

This raises the risks of multiple organ failure and might lead to death if not treated promptly and properly. The most common symptom of peritonitis is worsening abdominal pain, and surgical procedures can be used to seal holes in your intestines.

Other uncommon complications of typhoid fever are:

  • Paranoid psychosis, hallucinations, delirium, and other psychiatric problems.
  • Pneumonia
  • Bladder and kidney infections
  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscles)
  • Meningitis (inflammation or infection of the membranes and fluids covering your brain and spinal cord)
  • Endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves)

With prompt and appropriate treatment, you can recover from typhoid fever and survive these complications while vaccinations will prevent it from happening in the first place.

The Drugs (Vaccines) Used and Side Effects

Typhoid Injections

Typhim VI

This vaccine is an inactivated polysaccharide; it will be injected into the dorsal muscle in your arm. The dose is 0.5 ml, and you take one dose 2 weeks before you travel. We can also give it to you immediately before you travel if it is necessary.

You take a booster dose every 3 years; you can also be immunised orally instead of an injection. No special certificates are required, and some side effects of this vaccine are flu-like symptoms, inflammation, redness, and local pain.

Vivotiff

This is an oral typhoid vaccine, and it is administered orally in capsules, and 3 doses are taken on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day. A booster dose is taken every 1 to 3 years.

You have to store your capsules in a fridge, and you take each capsule an hour before a meal. Swallow it whole using cold water, don’t crush or open the capsule.

It is safe for 6 years old and above. Side effects of this vaccine are gastrointestinal problems, flu-like symptoms, inflammation, redness, and local pain. It can induce immune system problems in pregnant women.

How Long Will the Protection Last?

The protection induced by a vaccination lasts for three years.

Where to Get Your Vaccinations?

We provide typhoid fever vaccinations and a wide range of vaccinations against common illnesses. We prepare immunisations, injections, and tablets for people in London and its environs and even those visiting the city.

How Much Does Typhoid Vaccination Cost?

They are a lot of options to choose from, but our team of expert travel nurses will help you in making the right choice, and this will depend on where you are travelling to and your specific circumstances.

You can even take a typhoid vaccine along with Hepatitis A and oral capsules.

  • Hepatitis A and Typhoid Combined Vaccine – £89.
  • Typhoid Vaccine – £95.

Consultations

Do you want to book a typhoid vaccination? It is quick and easy to book an appointment with us; you can do it either through phone call or through our website.

Call us today on 020 37457527; you will be connected to an expert vaccination specialist who will tell you of the benefits and help you make the right choice.

We are located at Suit F, 117A Harley St, Marylebone, London W1G 6AT, UK.